AZ About Car Starter System

- AZ About Car Starter System
Latest update date: February 10, 07

Starting system plays a key role in the operation of a car, marking the beginning of the vehicle's transition from static to dynamic state. The structure of this system includes many important components, notably the battery (also known as battery), starter motor (also known as starter), ignition switch (or electric lock), and connecting electrical wires.

Each part has a separate function but works synchronously to create a chain of reactions, starting from the initial power supply from the battery, through activating the starter motor, and finally starting the engine. main engine of the vehicle. The complexity and importance of the starting system requires an in-depth understanding of how it works, potential signs of damage, as well as routine maintenance to ensure the vehicle is always ready. ready to operate, especially in harsh weather conditions or after long periods of non-use.

- AZ About Car Starter System
Car starting system

Main components of the boot system

  • Starter motor (Starter)
  • Solenoid
  • Battery
  • Ignition switch
  • Starter relay

Types of starter motors

1. Motor starter deceleration

The reduction starter motor uses a high-speed motor combined with a reduction system to increase output torque. This design is found in about 60% of modern vehicles due to its efficiency and compact size.

Main features:

  • Transmission ratios are usually from 3,33:1 to 4,44:1
  • Produces 2-3 times more torque than direct starter motors
  • More compact and lighter than traditional starter motors

2. Planetary gear starter motor

Planetary gear starter motors use a gear system to achieve high torque while maintaining a compact design. This type is commonly used in heavy duty applications and high performance vehicles.


  • Higher reduction ratio (up to 5,4:1)
  • Excellent durability in harsh conditions
  • Smooth connection and separation
Planetary gear car starting system
Planetary gear starter motor

3. Permanent magnet deceleration starter motor

These starter motors use permanent magnets instead of field coils, resulting in a more efficient and lightweight design.


  • Up to 50% lighter than conventional starter motors
  • Improved electrical efficiency (up to 70% compared to 55% of traditional starter motors)
  • Lower maintenance requirements
- AZ About Car Starter System
Permanent magnet deceleration starter motor

Operating principle of the starting system

1. Coupling phase

  • The driver turns the key or presses the start button
  • Solenoid receives electrical signals
  • The drive gear is pushed out to mesh with the flywheel gear ring

2. Spinning phase

  • The starter motor begins to rotate
  • The engine crankshaft rotates, starting the compression cycle
  • The fuel injection and ignition systems are activated

3. Separation stage

  • The engine begins to operate independently
  • Solenoid retracts active gear
  • The starter motor separates from the flywheel

Common System Startup and Diagnostics Problems

Problem The reason may be Diagnostic steps
Clicking sound, no rotation
  • Weak battery
  • Solenoid broken
  • Corroded connection
  • Check battery voltage
  • Check the connections
  • Check solenoids
Slow motion
  • Weak battery
  • Worn starter motor
  • High motor impedance
  • Check battery load
  • Measure the current consumed by the starter
  • Check the mechanical condition of the engine
  • Flywheel teeth are damaged
  • Starter actuator error
  • Check the flywheel gear ring
  • Check the starter drive mechanism
Unstable startup
  • Loose connection
  • Ignition switch is broken
  • Worn carbon brush
  • Check all electrical connections
  • Check ignition switch continuity
  • Check carbon brushes and commutator

Advanced starting system technology

1. Start-Stop system

Start-Stop technology automatically turns off the engine when the vehicle stops and restarts when the driver releases the brake pedal. This system can improve fuel efficiency by up to 10% in urban driving conditions.

The main components:

  • Advanced engine starting
  • AGM battery (Absorbent Glass Mat)
  • Intelligent control module

2. Integrated Generator (ISG)

The ISG combines the functions of the starter motor and generator into a single unit, providing greater efficiency and enabling mild hybrid capability.


  • Start the engine faster and smoother
  • Regenerative braking capability
  • Potential for increased power during acceleration

3. Belt-driven starter generator (BSG)

The BSG is connected to the engine via a belt system, allowing for quick and quiet engine starting in start-stop applications.


  • Compact design
  • Lower cost than full hybrid system
  • Improved fuel efficiency (up to 15% in urban driving)
- AZ About Car Starter System
Belt Driven Starter Generator (BSG)

Maintenance and Best Practices

To ensure optimal performance and longevity of your starter system, consider the following maintenance tips:

  • Check battery periodically: Check battery voltage and condition every 6 months
  • Clean connections: Remove corrosion from battery terminals and starter connections
  • Check the wiring: Look for frayed or damaged wires in the starter circuit
  • Starter motor maintenance: Check and maintain the starter motor every 50.000 km
  • Use proper wiring techniques: Follow the manufacturer's instructions when wiring the vehicle starter

Future trends in boot systems

As automotive technology continues to advance, several trends are emerging in starter system design:

  • 48 volt electrical system: Allows the generator to start more powerfully and efficiently
  • Laser ignition system: Potential to replace traditional spark plugs, improving starting efficiency
  • Cybersecurity measures: Advanced boot system protection from attack attempts
  • Predictive maintenance with AI: Use machine learning to predict system startup problems before they occur

Understanding the intricacies of a car's starting system is important for both car owners and automotive professionals. By staying informed about the latest technology and best practices, we can ensure reliable vehicle performance and improved efficiency for years to come.

Frequently asked questions (FAQ)

1. What is the minimum rotation speed to start a diesel engine?

Diesel engines require a minimum rotation speed of 80-100 rpm to start. This number is higher than that of gasoline engines (40-60 rpm) due to the high compression characteristics of diesel engines.

2. What is the transmission ratio of a reduction-type starter?

Reduction type starters usually have gear ratios from 3,33:1 to 4,44:1. This allows to increase output torque by 2-3 times compared to direct starter motors.

3. How much can Start-Stop technology improve fuel efficiency?

Start-Stop technology can improve fuel efficiency by up to 10% in urban driving conditions. This efficiency is achieved by automatically turning off the engine when the vehicle stops and restarting it when the driver releases the brake pedal.

4. What is the recommended frequency of starter motor maintenance?

It is recommended to check and service the starter motor every 50.000 km. Regular maintenance helps maintain optimal performance and prolong the life of the starter system. Read the article now: These Note that the starter has high durability Details are shared on the website.

5. What is the minimum length of a carbon brush before it needs to be replaced?

The minimum length of the carbon brush before needing replacement is usually 5-6 mm, depending on the specific vehicle model. When the carbon brushes are shorter than this limit, they need to be replaced to ensure starter performance.

6. What benefits does a 48-volt electrical system provide to a starter generator?

The 48-volt electrical system allows the generator to start more powerfully and efficiently, with capacity increased 3-4 times compared to traditional 12-volt systems. This better supports functions such as start-stop and regenerative braking.

7. What is the maximum time the start button should be held in the START position?

Do not hold the start button or ignition key in the START position for more than 10 seconds. If the engine does not start, wait 5-10 seconds before trying again to avoid battery voltage drop.

8. What is the minimum battery voltage required to start the engine?

The minimum battery voltage required to start the engine is 9,6V. If the voltage is lower than this when attempting to start, the battery may need to be replaced.

9. What is the deceleration ratio of a planetary gear type starter?

Planetary gear type starters can achieve a reduction ratio of up to 5,4:1, higher than that of a conventional reducer. This allows for greater torque from a compact electric motor.

10. By what percentage can an integrated generator (ISG) increase engine torque during acceleration?

The integrated generator (ISG) can increase engine torque by up to 20% during acceleration, depending on the specific design. This significantly improves the vehicle's acceleration and fuel efficiency.

11. How can laser ignition technology improve starting performance?

Laser ignition technology can improve starting performance by creating a stronger and more precise spark than traditional spark plugs. This can help reduce start-up times by up to 20-30% and improve fuel combustion efficiency.

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3 Commentary

  • Nguyen Thao 08/11/2019

    Ad let me ask:
    Is there any measure to protect the engine when the engine is starting to be disabled (ie when the vehicle is running, do not start the engine again, please?)

  • hoang van Toan 07/12/2019

    I would like to document the boot system on mazda 6 vs

    • I would like to document the power supply system and the starter on the Hyundai D6CA engine. Thank you very much!


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