Structure, classification, operating principles, The damaged and repaired?
You may own a car equipped with a high-performance engine and high-efficiency gearbox that can transmit most of the engine's power to the wheel, but if you can't control it The wheels make the car move in the direction you want it, so the high-performance motor or high-performance gearbox no longer makes sense because you can't control your vehicle on the road. .
Drive system is one of the seven basic systems, the most important in the car. While the engine and powertrain transfer power down the wheel, the steering system is used to change the direction of motion or keep the car moving in a certain trajectory such as turning left, turning right, go straight ... The steering system is a rather complex system, it is divided into many assemblies and parts with separate functions to support each other.
The steering system with the steering wheel arranged to the left in the direction of the car's movement is used on cars of countries with right-of-way laws like Vietnam and some other countries.
The steering system with the steering wheel arranged to the right in the direction of the movement of the car is used on cars of countries with left-handed road laws such as the United Kingdom, Japan, Sweden ...
+ Note: Car Brake System
Steering system with front-wheel drive, this type is often equipped on most current passenger cars such as TOYOTA Vios, TOYOTA Camry, KIA Morning, KIA Cerato, HYUNDAI I10, HYUNDAI Elantra ... and commercial vehicles such as FORD Transit, HYUNDAI County ...
Steering system with rear-wheel guide wheels, this type of steering system is less equipped in cars because the structure of the steering system is complicated when it is necessary to arrange additional axes and levers from front to rear, copper. At the same time, it requires more power steering when the car accelerates due to the inertial force, which concentrates the load towards the rear axle, thus increasing the fuel consumption, which is often equipped on the lift trucks, specialized vehicles. use…
Steering system with guide wheels on both front and rear axles, the purpose of equipping the steering system on the bridges is to reduce the turning radius of cars, making it easier for the vehicle to turn around when driving at low speeds. the ability to wear unrooted gear and increase the stability for the car when traveling at high speeds.
This type of steering system is equipped on Porsche models such as: Panamera, Cayenne2018, 911 GT3, AG ... and other high-end car manufacturers such as Audi, Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Lexus ... with session more modern version, electronically controlled. When the vehicle speed on 80km / h the rear wheel will automatically rotate in the same direction with the front wheel to increase the phenomenon of missing rotation of the car, helping the car more stable. When the vehicle speed is below 50km / h, the rear wheel will be in the opposite direction with the front wheel to ensure that the car is easy to bend, the driver will not feel the tension of the steering wheel and heavy steering.
Missing revolutions occur when the driver tries to steer the vehicle to the left or right, but then the vehicle tends to go straight or does not follow the curve the driver wants. When this phenomenon occurs, the vehicle is very likely to encounter an accident due to a collision with a car running in the opposite direction.
Excessive rotation is more likely to occur than the missing rotation, which occurs when the driver steers the vehicle to the left or right to follow the trajectory of the road surface, but the vehicle tends to have a tail. and rotate the circle.
To overcome these phenomena when cars are traveling on the road, car manufacturers around the world have launched systems: Electronic balance (ESP, ESC), Electronic Brake force Distribution (EBD) and Anti-lock braking system (ABS) to help the car move more stably, reducing unwanted accidents for the driver. To better understand the above systems, please Thanh Phong Auto refer to the next article!
To avoid causing confusion for readers, in this article Thanh Phong Auto refers to the type of driving mechanism screw - rod teeth, otherwise known as a ruler. This type of steering structure is very popular on most passenger cars today such as TOYOTA Vios, Altis, Camry, Fortuner, Mazda 3, Mazda 6, HONDA city, HONDA Civic, KIA Cerato, KIA Morning ... The steering gauge is popular because of its structural simplicity, ease of repair in case of damage, and the ease of fitting of the power steering systems.
The structure of the ruler is shown as shown below.
The main structure consists of a screw that is fitted with a gear bar. When the driver turns the steering wheel as the screw rotates, the screw that aligns with the gear bar should cause the gear bar to move left or right. To combine the ruler with the wheel trailer, a pair of spherical joints, also known as rotors, are arranged, each steering wheel consists of a pair of internal and external rotors. The rotuyn and pinion form a trapezoidal drive system, also known as a driving trapezoid.
The purpose of creating a driving trapezoid to ensure a stable movement of the vehicle when turning, the wheel inside the corner will not slip compared to the outside wheel.
+ Proposal: How to Correctly Calibrate a Steering Wheel
Have you ever wondered why a motorbike does not need power steering but steering is still very gentle while a car needs power steering? Because the total weight of a car is very large, in a standstill state, the drag acting on the steering mechanism is so large that the driver cannot rotate the steering wheel, so an auxiliary power steering system is required. to assist the driver. Types of power steering are often arranged in cars today such as hydraulic power steering, electric power steering and hydraulic power steering - electronic.
This type of power steering is first equipped in the car. The structure of this power steering system is very simple: it consists of two oil pipes into the 2 compartment, which are pre-divided inside the ruler, the steering valves and a power-assisted oil pump driven by the engine to pump the oil. tape measure.
Signs to identify a car equipped with hydraulic power steering system is very simple, you just need to open the lid, look around the engine compartment, if you find a cap that says " Power Steering Fluid ”, the type of assistance that is fitted to your vehicle is hydraulic power steering. Most popular passenger cars such as Vios, Altis, Camry, FORD Focus, FORD Fiesta, KIA Morning, KIA Cerato, HYUNDAI I10, elantra, Mazda3 ... are equipped with this type of power steering.
This type of power steering uses electricity to overcome the disadvantages of hydraulic power. When the vehicle runs at high speed, the steering will become very gentle so the driver is easily lost the feeling of driving, the driver steers the steering at a small angle but the vehicle is turning very large, the hydraulic power steering system does not adjustable to reduce power steering, so electric power steering was born to remedy this situation.
The structure of the electric power steering system is very simple, it consists of an electric motor, a screw mounted on the motor shaft, the screw fitted with a screw is fixed on the drive shaft, the motor will be Controlled by a controller through the signal of the sensor. This power steering method is often arranged on Mercedes-Benz, Audi, BMW, Lexus cars ..., C-class cars of Toyota, Honda, Kia, Mazda, Ford ....
Hydraulic-electronic steering is more accurately called electronically controlled hydraulic steering. As the name implies, this power steering system is similar to the hydraulic power system, but the difference here is that the hydraulic oil control valves will be controlled by a controller via sensors. instead of being opened and closed mechanically due to the action of the steering wheel in the conventional hydraulic power system. This is a power steering method that is popular today, it is equipped on many lines of Nissan, Infinity, Toyota, Lexus, BMW, Audi, Mercedes-Benz, Honda, Ford, Mitsubishi ...
The steering system is one of the seven most important basic systems in a car, so regular maintenance checks will make the steering system work efficiently and safely when used. The following Thanh Phong Auto will list some common faults on the steering system:
+. Driving oil sip: this is a common situation with a ruler, because the worn-out silver seals and seals are worn out, so the inside of the ruler has leaked out, causing dirt on the car.
+. Damaged rotuyn to drive outside and rotuyn to drive inside
+. Damage, leakage of oil on oil pipelines cause a shortage of power oil.
+. Damaged power oil pump, pump has a loud cry.
+. Driving slips due to wrong steering alignment.
+. And other common failures ...
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