Braking / braking system: classification, structure, operating principles, electronic brake system, brake fluid, damage and repair?
Main Article Content
Introduction What Is A Brake System?
Braking is one of the seven most important basic systems in a car. You've probably heard of "spark plug brakes" also known as drum brakes and disc brakes. The drum brake is widely used in cars with large tonnage such as trucks, passenger cars, special-use vehicles ... It is also arranged on the rear axle of some passenger cars of the shops such as TOYOTA, HYUNDAI, HONDA , KIA, MAZDA…;
Disc brakes are also used widely in the current passenger car line. Braking system is used to reduce the speed of the car to a necessary value or stop and keep the car parked on the ramps. Without the brakes, we can't control the speed of our cars at will, so it's a very important system in cars.
Classification of brakes
The brake system is a very important system in automobiles, there are many types of brakes equipped on cars such as the main brake, stop brake, drum brake (brake increase), disc brakes ... Accordingly The brakes are classified as follows:
According to the purpose of use
- Main brake system (also known as foot brakes) is used in cars to reduce the speed of the car according to the driver's wishes, it is fitted on all the wheels in the front and rear axles of the car.
- Stop brake system is used to keep the car in a stationary state. It is usually operated by hand, so it is also called handbrake. The main function of this type of brake system is to keep the car in a stationary state when stopping on a flat or downhill road.
According to the structure of the brake mechanism
Clogs brake mechanism (drum brakes)
- Drum brake mechanism (also known as boost brake) consists of two brake pads (brake pads) fixed on the bridge, the brake pads are driven by wheel brake cylinders (piglets) or by mechanical driving, one drum brake (increase brakes). taken outside the brake pads, on the drum there are holes to attach to the wheel hub. Note that the brake drum rotates with the wheel, while the brake pad will stand still.
Advantages of drum braking mechanism
- Because the drum brake has a brake drum that covers the inner brake pads, dirt and dust can be prevented from sticking to the surface between the brake pads and the brake drum, causing great wear.
- Easy arrangement of hand brake and foot brake on the same brake mechanism reduces the cost of the vehicle.
- The common disadvantage of this brake mechanism is that when iron filings are generated inside the brake drum, it will be difficult to escape, thereby increasing the wear and rapid deterioration of brake pads and brake drums.
- Its ability to escape heat is very difficult, so it is easy to lead to brake failure when the driver performs continuous braking.
The drum braking mechanism (drum brake) is usually arranged on large-tonnage vehicles such as trucks, passenger cars, specialized vehicles, in addition it is also arranged on the rear axle of vehicles such as TOYOTA Fortuner , Hilux, Land Cruiser; FORD Everest, Escape; HONDA CRV, City; NISSAN X-trail, Navara; CHEVROLET Colorado ...
Disc brake mechanism (disc brakes)
The disc brake mechanism consists of a steel disc that is fixed by a bolt on the wheel hub shaft, a bracket (also called a caliper or brake shackles) and brake pads (brake pads). The bracket is mounted on the bridge case so it will be fixed, while the brake disc will rotate with the wheel.
On the stand is arranged hydraulic cylinders and brake pads. When the driver steps on the brake pedal, the piston moves so that the brake pads are pressed against the brake disc to perform the braking process. A brake system that uses a disc brake mechanism is always accompanied by a hydraulic brake drive system.
Currently, the disc brake bracket is usually divided into two types: fixed-type pistons arranged on both sides (double-sided) compared to the brake discs and the mobile type with pistons arranged on one side compared to the discs brake. This type of mobile stand is most popular due to its compact construction.
Advantages of disc brakes
+ good cooling, so the ability to lose brakes when the driver checks the brake continuously will occur more slowly.
+ Understand the braking effect is also higher than the drum braking mechanism after a long time of use.
+ The most explosive advantage of it is the ability to automatically adjust the gap between the brake pads and the disc brake so that this gap is always constant even though the brake pads are worn out, so the time of slowing down the effect of the brake system is always constant. Compared to some brakes using drum brakes arranged on passenger cars.
Disc brakes are used on all passenger cars such as: TOYOTA Vios, Innova, Altis, Camrry, Fortuner; HONDA City, Civic, CRV; KIA Morning, Cerato, Sedona; HYUNDAI i10, Elantra; MAZDA 2, 3, 6, CX5…. Or even on high-class cars of Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Audi, Range Rover, Lexus, Acura, Porsche ...
Styled brake drive
Mechanical drive brake system
Mechanical drive brakes (also known as cable drives) are often used on older models. Currently, this type of brake drive is only used for the brake system, this is a mandatory requirement for the brake system to ensure the reliability and safety of the brake system.
The reason why the mechanical brake system is so rarely used is because of its complicated structure, the arrangement of the cable connection points to the brake structure at the wheel is very difficult and complicated. To overcome that situation, manufacturers have designed hydraulic drive brakes.
Hydraulic drive brakes
This type of brake drive is used most commonly and widely today on the passenger car of manufacturers such as TOYOTA, HONDA, KIA, MAZDA, HYUNDAI ... It operates according to Pascal's law, structure Its is explained as shown below:
Hydraulic drive brakes often come with a vacuum brake booster (braking assist brakes) to reduce driver fatigue and ensure stable braking performance.
Pneumatic drive brake system
The pneumatic drive brake system is mainly arranged on heavy trucks, tractors, semi-trailers ... due to the requirement of this type of brake drive, there must be an air compressor arranged on the vehicle.
The brake system combines hydraulic - pneumatic
This type of brake drive is usually only arranged in heavy trucks and specialized vehicles.
Types of modern brakes
Electromagnetic brakes (Magnetic Brakes)
This is a form of brake system, the magnetic field generated by permanent magnets used to perform wheel braking. This is a friction-free braking system so no abrasion will occur, and there is no pressure inside the brakes. The delay time of the electromagnetic brake system is very short so it is a very safe and reliable brake system.
Electric parking brake - Electronic Parking Brake
As the name implies, this brake system essentially only changes the method of mechanical (cable) driving by electric and electronically controlled driving. A brake switch is located next to the gear lever, when the driver pushes the switch, the electric motor rotates and presses the brake pads on the brake disc to create the brake.
To release the brakes, the driver just needs to start the engine and drive away, the braking system will automatically stop the brake before the vehicle starts moving without having to press the switch. This brake system is also known as electronic handbrake, it is equipped on many high-end models of manufacturers: Mercedes-Benz, Audi, BMW, Lexus, Volvo, Porsche ...
This is the type of braking system used in electric vehicles, the braking is done by the electric motor driving the wheel. When the driver steps on the brake, the electric motor is converted to its function as a generator, the driving kinetic energy of the vehicle is converted into electricity and other forms of energy to perform the braking. The phrase "regenerative brakes" will be mentioned a lot when electric cars are manufactured in Vietnam.
Electronic Braking System (Electronic Braking System)
The electronic control of the brakes helps reduce the delay time of braking. Therefore, it significantly reduces braking distance, thereby avoiding unwanted accidents. Braking system is equipped with anti-lock braking feature ABS will help the driver more stable, minimizing the loss of control when braking.
Thanh Phong Auto would like to list some systems combined with the brakes to increase braking efficiency:
- Body stabilization system (ESC, ESP...).
- Forward collision warning system (ACC)
- Anti-lock brake system (ABS) and differential anti-slip system (DSR)
- Automatic Traction Control (ATC)
For better understanding and electronic control systems, please also consult Thanh Phong Auto next article!
Most current models such as TOYOTA Vios, Altis, Innova, Fortuner; KIA morning, Cerato; Mazda 3, CX5; HYUNDAI i10, i20; FORD Focus, Ranger ... are equipped with anti-lock braking feature ABS to ensure safety for the occupants of the car.
Brake fluid is a certain standard fluid used inside the brake system to perform brake drive. The braking system during operation generates a huge amount of heat, so the brake fluid must be able to withstand high temperatures and not freeze in operating conditions.
Braking fluid has been researched to protect the brake system components from oxidation.
Each vehicle will require a specific type of brake fluid, usually DOT3 or DOT4. Current models often adopt the DOT4 brake fluid standard to ensure the proper functioning of the brakes' internal components. Mixing brake fluid with different standards will severely affect the brakes on your vehicle leading to unsafe operation.
The common damage of the brakes
During operation, the brake system will generate damage that the driver needs to pay attention to:
- The "squeak", "squeak" sound indicates that the brake pads are worn and need to be replaced, the replacement of the brake pads (brake) must always be accompanied by removing the brake disc (brake disc) to ensure safety and stability.
- If you feel the brake pedal is very light when applying the brake, it means that there are air bubbles inside the oil pipe, you should go to Thanh Phong Auto to have it fixed immediately.
- The brake mechanism after a period of use will have iron filings and dirt on the brake discs, brake drums and brake pads, so it should be cleaned periodically.
- The brake light error light is displayed on the taplo screen due to a shortage of brake fluid or the brake pads are almost worn out.
- The ABS error light displayed may be caused by damage to the wheel speed sensors, the sensor wires may be broken or the electronic brake fluid distributor has a problem.
- For the electronic handbrake: damage can occur to the electrical circuits, switches, fuses, actuators or even the controller... causing the handbrake to not work.
- And other common mistakes…
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