Lubrication system: Structure, operating principle? The damaged and repaired?
The lubrication system of the internal combustion engine is responsible for the distribution of lubricant from the viscous cartridges to the friction and motion surfaces in the engine. At the same time, clean the viscous impurities when cleaning the friction surface and cool the lubricant to ensure its good performance.
Lubricants used in lubrication systems come in many different types, each of which is made up of many different materials. Lubricants are divided into grades and categories according to strict standards, selecting the right oil and ensuring quality will help the engine run smoother, increase its life and reduce fuel consumption.
1 Current engine lubrication methods
Lubricate by splashing method
Most internal combustion engines today use forced lubrication. Lubricant is pushed to friction surfaces and moves inside the engine under a certain pressure through a viscous pump. Therefore, the system can completely guarantee the lubrication, cooling and cleaning requirements of these surfaces.
This lubrication system is very complex, the lubricant circuits are designed to go inside the body and the lid forms a circulating system.
+ Note: Internal combustion engine: Overview? The common damage?
2 A few key details of the forced lubrication system
To ensure the axes, friction surfaces, bearings ... are less prone to wear due to impurities generated during operation, lubricant must be sufficiently clean. During operation the viscosity is decomposed and contaminated by impurities such as:
+ Metal filings due to abrasive friction surfaces, especially during the running phase when the engine is new or when the engine has just started running again after a long period of inactivity.
+ Impurities mixed in the air intake such as sand, dust ... these impurities go into the cylinder and into the oil and then down to the crankcase causing viscous contamination.
+ Coal dust caused by fuel or oil gets into the cylinder.
+ Impurities resulting from poor quality, oxidized or reacted with acids generated during combustion.
To ensure that the impurities are filtered out, keeping the viscosity clean, a fine filter is used.
The viscous pumps used in engine lubrication systems are usually external or internal gear pumps. The pump is driven by motor crankshaft through gears.
In the process of working, the temperature of the memory will increase continuously, because the oil absorbs heat from the engine cylinder wall and high temperature components, heat from friction surfaces ... To ensure the ability to work stability of the viscosity, keeping the viscosity constant to ensure lubrication, people use cooling tanks to reduce the viscosity temperature. It can be cooled in two ways: using engine coolant for cooling and air cooling.
3 Common failures with lubrication systems
Usually, the failure of the lubrication system is very rare if the user always obeys the recommendations of the manufacturer when using the car, regular maintenance of oil change and oil filter periodically. The failure of the lubrication system will lead to extremely serious damage to other systems on the engine such as the power generation system (piston, rod, crankshaft ...), gas distribution system (shaft orange, xupap, stork ...). Maintenance and repair costs for the damage resulting in overhaul of this engine are very high compared to other damage on the vehicle.
A few problems can occur with a lubrication system such as:
+ The amount of oil is too low, leading to the lubricating oil pressure light.
+ Used too long oil filter clogged lead to lack of lubrication to the lubricant, causing large abrasion.
+ Ron cartridges viscous after a long time to use aging, leaking viscous cartridges out.
And other damage can occur ...
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