Automotive start-up system is a system that turns the crankshaft of the engine to a certain speed so that the engine can start the engine and start.
To start the engine, the crankshaft must rotate faster than the minimum rotation speed. The minimum rotation speed to start the engine varies depending on the engine structure and operating condition, usually from 40-60 rpm for gasoline engines and 80-100 rpm for diesel engines.
Automotive starter systems often use direct current motors or electric motors, often called starter motors.
Starting motor using power source is car battery. These engines need to generate a large torque from the battery's limited power and also need to be compact.
1 Types of starting machines
Type of deceleration
- High speed motor deceleration starter.
- Geared type starters increase torque by reducing the rotation speed of the motor armature by the reducer
- The piston of the magnetic switch directly pushes the active gear on the same shaft with it to match the gear ring.
- The bendix gear is located on the same axis as the motor core (armature) and rotates at the same speed as the core.
- The drive lever is connected to the push rod of the active gear push-button switch and makes it match the gear ring.
+ Note: General Car Maintenance Schedule
Planetary gear type
- Planetary gear type actuators use planetary transmitters to reduce the rotation speed of the motor's armature (armature).
- Bandix gears align with the gear hubs through the drive arm in the same way as a coaxial starter.
PS starter (planetary rotor planetary reducer motor)
- This starter machine uses special permanent magnets in the coil.
- The actuator works like a planetary gear starter.
The following, Thanh Phong Auto Introducing the principle of operation of the starter for popular vehicles such as Toyota, Mitsubishi, Ford, Honda, Chevrolet, Nissan or the high-class Mer, Bmw, Lexus, Audi…. and some common diseases of the starter.
2 Principle of operation of the starter (BASE)
- Pull (Suction in)
When the ignition key is turned on the START position, the battery current will flow into the holding coil and suction coil. Then go from the suction coil to the armature through the coil down cool. The creation of the electromagnetic force in the holding and suction coils will magnetize the polar cores and so the magnet switch pistons are attracted to the polar core of the electromagnet. Thanks to this suction, the gears are pushed out and matched with the flywheel gears and the contact disc will turn on the main switch.
When the main switch is turned on, there is no current flowing through the suction coil because the two ends of the suction coil are constant pressure, inductors and the coil directly receive the current from the battery. The armature coil then begins to spin at high speed and the engine is started. At this time the piston is held in place only by the electromagnetic force of the holding coil because there is no current flowing through the suction coil.
- Release (return)
When the electric lock is turned from the START position to the ON position, at this time the main contact is still closed, current flows from the main switch to the suction coil and then through the holding coil. The structural characteristics of suction and holding coils are that they have the same number of turns and coils. At this point, the current flowing through the suction coil is reversed, the electromagnetic force generated by the suction coil and the coil keeps canceling each other so it cannot hold the piston. Therefore, the piston was pushed back by the return spring and the main switch was shut down, causing the engine to stop.
3 Thanh Phong Auto sends you some common diseases with the starter
Check and repair
- Remove the starter
- Remove the electric motor
- Remove the magnetic switch
- Remove bendix gear
- Check out every detail
- Check the Rotor
- Check to touch the circuit and the rotor wire frame
Place the rotor on the tachometer, place the saw blade parallel to the core and turn the rotor manually. If the wire frame has a short circuit, it will cause the saw blade to suck down.
A collapsed wire frame is a phenomenon in which the insulating layers are peeled off, causing the wires to collide, which will form a closed circuit.
In a rotor, wire frames are wrapped at the outer edge of the rotor. Thanks to the structure of the testing machine, the number of power lines entering the rotor core is equal to the number of power lines coming out. Therefore on the wire frames generate positive and opposite electromotive force, their sum is zero so there is no current flowing through the frame. If frames are touched, a closed circuit forms an imbalance, generating current through the frame. The magnetic field of this current draws the saw blade attached to the rotor.
Use the caliper to measure the outside diameter of the commutator. Smooth out the outer surface of the commutator if there is a protrusion.
Checking for wear: Place the rotor on a V-block, use the rotary hand, read the gauge.
Check the bearing
Use the wheel to crank the ball, listen and feel the noise and the stir
- Check the stator
- Check the stator winding continuity
Use VOM to check the continuity of the stator coil.
Check the stator insulation
Measure the stator's insulation by measuring the resistance from the brush to the starter housing.
Check the brush
Use a ruler to measure the length along the center of the brush. Replace the brush if the result is less than the limit, check for cracks, breaks and replace if necessary.
Check the insulation of the brush holder: visually check for springs that are not weak or rusted.
Visually see if the gear is broken or worn. Manual rotation to check the clutch only rotates in one direction.
- Check suction roll, hold roll
- Try suction mode
The magnetic switch is good if the bendix pin comes out when the 3 wire is connected.
- Try holding mode
Keep the same condition as when trying the suction mode. The magnetic switch is in good condition if the remaining bendix gear is still ejected when disassembling the test wire of 1.
- Assemble the starter
Grease points and tightening force values table of the starter.
- Check the voltage
- Check the voltage of battery
+ Note: Automotive Service Processes
When the machine starts operating, the battery voltage at the battery is reduced due to the high current in the circuit. Even if the battery voltage is normal before the engine starts, the machine cannot start normally unless a certain amount of battery voltage exists when the starter starts to work. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the battery voltage of the following battery when the engine is starting.
Follow these steps:
- Turn on the ignition key to START position and conduct voltage measurement between the battery terminals.
- Standard voltage: 9.6 V or higher
- If the measured voltage is lower than 9.6 V, the battery must be replaced.
- If the machine does not work or turns slowly, first check if the battery is normal.
- Even if the measured voltage at the battery terminal is normal, if the battery terminals become worn or rusted, it can make it difficult to start up because the increased resistance reduces the voltage applied to the starting motor. Activate when turning on the ignition switch to the START position.
- Check the voltage at the pole of 30
Turn the ignition to the START position and measure the voltage between the 30 terminal and the contact point.
Standard voltage: 8.0 V or higher.
If the voltage is lower than 8.0 V, it must be repaired or replaced with a starter cable.
The position and style of the 30 pole can vary according to the type of start motor, so check and determine this pole according to the repair manual.
- Check the voltage of 50
Turn the ignition to the START position and measure the voltage between the 50 terminal and the contact point.
Standard voltage: 8.0 V or higher.
If the voltage is lower than 8.0 V, it is necessary to check the fuse, electric lock, intermediate number start switch, engine start relay, clutch starter relay, etc. at that time. Refer to the circuit diagram, repair or replacement of damaged parts.
- Vehicle starter with clutch start switch does not work unless clutch pedal is depressed at full stroke.
- In vehicles with anti-theft system, if the shelf is activated, the starter machine will not work, because the starter relay is in the off state even when the ignition is in the START position.
4 How to identify the system boot error, damage
- Faulty relay:
The relay is responsible for suction release so that the gear ring fits into the engine starting gear ring. The sign that the relay is not working properly is that you will hear the continuous crackling sound when conducting a press. The reason is that, the power supply for the suction coil is unstable when passing through the relay causing continuous suction release. This can lead to sliding threads, broken teeth and affect the quality of the problem. When there is a phenomenon on the car you can bring to Thanh Phong auto for inspection, advice or repair.
- Worn brush:
When the brush is worn out, it is not maintained, cleaned periodically, the dust generated by the brush will attach to the permanent magnet, fixed to the cover of the starter. The carbon brush is too worn out, the dust on the commutator will cause flickering when used.
When subjected, not only does the machine not explode but also has an abnormal gear impact phenomenon on the engine, which is very jarring. That is the problem and the problem. The cause of this phenomenon is the IC ignition at the wrong time or put the wrong cam after overhaul.
Specifically, the ignition timing is too early, the ignition before the ignition timing of the engine causes a reverse explosion (the motor's rotation direction is opposite to the motor's rotation direction), which can easily lead to chipping. broken teeth, deformed molars or destroyed threads. You can contact Thanh Phong Auto to check and adjust when the above phenomenon occurs.
- Rust rusty joint
The connections from the battery outlet and the starter input are the most likely place to rust, rust due to poor contact, the electric current to the starter is not enough for the bulb to produce a large torque. to start the engine. Most types of clamps, or screws that connect these connectors are not copper or aluminum, so they quickly corrode and rust, affecting the quality of the starting current. Check and clean these joints regularly to ensure good contact.
When starting the engine, Thanh Phong Auto It is recommended not to hold the start button or the electric key in the START position for more than 10 seconds if the engine does not start, because the longer you hold it, the higher the chance of the battery voltage drop. Therefore, after starting the 1 engine again and still not starting the engine, the engine should stop from 5-10 seconds and continue to start the engine.
For the causes of the above errors, please bring your car to a reputable repair facility for the inspection technician to fix. Normally the starter kit is very difficult to break down but if it is not regularly serviced, the unit will break down over time. Therefore, regular and periodic maintenance of the tubers (carried out together with the maintenance of the car) not only helps maintain its ability to work well and increase its life but also save unnecessary costs when it occurs. damaged.
The above are suggestions for identifying faulty, corrupted boot systems Thanh Phong Auto would like to send to you. Hope to help you in maintaining "hard driver" to maintain the best car state and have a safer journey.
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Ad let me ask:
Is there any measure to protect the engine when the engine is starting to be disabled (ie when the vehicle is running, do not start the engine again, please?)
I would like to document the boot system on mazda 6 vs
I would like to document the power supply system and the starter on the Hyundai D6CA engine. Thank you very much!