Power transmission system - Gearbox: classification, structure, operating principle? Types of automatic transmissions? Damages and repairs
The gearbox is an important part of the automotive powertrain. It undertakes the function of changing the torque and the speed of the active wheel to match the torque of the road and the car's speed according to the needs of the user. In addition, it must have the function of allowing the car to move forward or backward, and it must also allow the engine to operate while the vehicle is stationary.
Over many years of development, the gearbox in cars has been divided into many different types from manual transmission to automatic gearbox, and more modern automatic transmission gearbox. The development from manual transmission to automatic transmission will help reduce driver pressure for the user more, users will not get tired when shifting, or operating the car in off-road conditions ... In this article, Thanh Phong Auto will introduce readers useful information about the types of gearboxes fitted on current models.
Car gearboxes are classified based on many factors such as:
The number of gears depends on the purpose of use and the type of vehicle, but each car is equipped with a gearbox with different gears.
According to the number of shafts in the gearbox (manual transmission): depending on the position between the engine and the active bridge, the gearbox will be changed accordingly. Most of today's cars are equipped with an engine located in front of the cockpit:
According to the gear control method The transmission will be divided into categories such as manual transmission, automatic transmission and semi-automatic transmission.
A manual transmission, also known as a regular gearbox, is the oldest type of transmission that is also fitted in cars today. The manual gearbox usually comes with a dry friction clutch, the friction clutch is responsible for switching between the gearbox and the motor. The clutch is controlled via the clutch pedal, when the shifter is shifted, the driver deploys the clutch pedal to stop the rotary movement between the engine and the input shaft (primary shaft) of the gearbox, simultaneously. with the operation of the gear lever to perform gear changes.
The purpose of disconnecting the clutch before shifting is to reduce the speed difference between the input shaft and the output shaft of the gearbox, making shifting easier. A small tip when changing gears to a manual gearbox, during the clutch disconnection, the driver should lightly click the accelerator to increase the engine revs, when the gear is complete, the number of engine revolutions will decrease down to the right working area, helping the car to become more loading and more fuel efficient.
The automatic transmission with a level is a very popular type of gearbox on the models of Toyota, KIA, MAZDA, HONDA, HYUNDAI, MERCEDES-BENZ, BMW, AUDI, LEXUS, FORD ...
The gearbox has a gearbox that uses planetary gears to make gears, it always comes with a hydraulic torque converter or a clutch to make the motor disconnect. All gear and gear variables are controlled by a controller that automatically switches on and off according to the operating conditions.
The gearshift is done by switching wet clutch disc clutches inside the gearbox to fix one of the three components of the planetary gear set: the sun gear, the planetary gear and the gear ring. Each pair of drive gears and pinions will form a gearbox gearbox.
The reason this automatic transmission is called a stepless gearbox because there is no gear coupling to form a certain gearbox inside the gearbox.
CVT gear box uses 2 puly changeable diameter and a belt with special structure connecting 2 puly, a system of hydraulic and electromagnetic pipes and valves designed to be integrated with the pulleys, a The controller will open and close the valves to change the diameter of 2 puly to make a continuous change in gearbox depending on the operating conditions of the vehicle.
The CVT gearbox operates on friction, so the most important thing for CVT gearboxes is to choose the right gear lubricant. Viscosity of CVT gearboxes must not reduce the coefficient of friction between belt contact surfaces and the pulley below the permissible level to reduce slippage. Each manufacturer will specify a special lubricant specific to their CVT gearbox.
Stepless gearbox is an ideal gearbox from the viewpoint of calculation and gearbox design. It allows using the maximum power of the engine on a very long speed range of the car, and the ability to save fuel is also very high compared to other types of gearboxes. It is easy to see that the models are equipped with a CVT gearbox such as NISSAN X-trail; MITSUBISHI Mirage, Attrage; HONDA City, TOYOTA Vios; HYUNDAI Accent ...
Dual-clutch gearboxes are also considered as semi-automatic transmissions because the gearbox allows control in both automatic and manual control. As the name implies, the double-clutch gearbox is made up of 2 wet friction clutches that operate separately from each other. One clutch connects the shaft of odd-numbered gears (1,3,5) and the other is connected to the shaft of even-numbered gears (2,4,6).
The clutch is controlled on and off by the controller via hydraulic-solenoid valves. The gearbox still uses the same synchronous mechanism as the manual gearbox. In principle, the dual-clutch gearbox can be considered as a combination of two manual transmissions into a unified whole.
+ After a long time using the gearbox, it is easy to encounter the error of jamming, the driver cannot change gears.
+ The gearbox has noise, vibration due to large abrasion of gears.
+ Shift the gear to 0 because the gear lever is pushed and the guide is bent, the synchronous device is worn.
+ Gearboxes are viscous, lubricant due to openness, excessive amount of oil ...
+ The gearbox is overheated, allowing for lack of lubricant or lubricant not in accordance with the prescribed standards.
+ Melting oil at the bottom of the gearbox due to leakage of the gearbox or excessive amount of oil.
+ Generating loud noise, vibration due to abrasion of planetary gears, or pulley-belts for CVT automatic transmission.
+ The engine speed is very large while the vehicle speed is very low because of the wrong lubrication for the automatic gearbox, the double-clutch gearbox for wet friction clutch, or it might be due to hydraulic torque variable. (squash) is damaged.
+ Viscosity of the gearbox automatically changes to black or dark gray due to dirt and dust can quickly erode the gears inside the gearbox.
+ And other damaged errors ...
>>> Suggestions for reference: Signs Of A Broken Gearbox Car
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